Ketone bodies, also known as ketones, have many health benefits. They lower receptive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals in the body. D-3HB modulates skeletal muscle cell function, and acetoacetate is readily used by the brain as fuel. NAD+ is a nutrient that naturally depletes as we grow older. Ketone bodies also protect the brain against oxidative stress, thereby improving mental health.

d-3HB modulates skeletal muscle cell function

d-3HB inhibits histone deacetylase (HDAC) and NLRP3 and reduces mTORC1, leading to inhibition of inflammation, oxidative stress and tissue fibrosis. Several animal models have demonstrated d-3HB ameliorates cognitive impairments and alleviates a variety of disease symptoms, including diabetes and post-traumatic stress disorder. In humans, d-3HB alleviates the signs and symptoms of DM and may be an effective therapeutic option in the future.

acetoacetate is the least abundant ketone body

The most common ketone body is acetone. Acetoacetate is found in every human blood. This molecule is also the least abundant, yet still has a significant role in metabolism. Its main role is to convert sugars into energy. This is accomplished through the conversion of fatty acids to acetoacetate, which is the lowest-abundant ketone body, continue to read here.

d-3HB reduces receptive oxygen species and free radicals

Free radicals are molecules that attack the macromolecules in our body, such as lipids and proteins. These molecules can cause cell damage and disrupt homeostatic balance. Although they attack a wide variety of molecules, their major targets are proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. Free radicals are also a key component of the cellular response. They are generated by a number of processes that begin with the formation of reactive oxygen species.

acetoacetate is easily used by the brain as a fuel source

Glucose is the brain’s primary fuel source. The problem is that the brain is unable to use glucose effectively. The solution? Increasing the brain’s acetoacetate levels. But is acetoacetate used as a fuel source in AD? The answer is yes, but is acetoacetate used as a fuel source in the brain only during acute hypoglycemia?

Exogenous ketone supplementation induces nutritional ketosis

When you take a dietary ketone, your body begins to produce more BHB (beta-hydroxybutyric acid) in the blood. This naturally occurs when your body breaks down fatty acids and switches over to ketones. Exogenous ketone supplementation may induce nutritional ketosis more safely than a ketogenic diet. It may also have long-term effects on your body’s metabolic and physical health.


In a study published in PLoS One, researchers have found that the ketogenic diet reduces amyloid beta 42 in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease. Other researchers have examined cognitive changes in aged rats and found that a ketogenic diet improved brain energy and cognition. These findings raise questions about how the diet might affect cognitive functioning in humans. Further research is necessary to determine the effects of the keto diet on the brain.